As the days get longer and the warmer temperatures begin to appear, so do the many familiar sounds of spring, which include the songs of returning migrant birds from their wintering grounds. With some birds traveling thousands of tiresome miles to reach their destination, it is important to provide these species with a welcoming haven to rest and rejuvenate themselves. It is equally important to provide these species with quality living areas, habitat or homes that they expect to find after their long journeys. When creating and providing homes and habitat superior quality, detail and perfection should be your standards.
These are the standards that the Trump Organization demands throughout its projects and as a recent member of New Jersey Audubon's Corporate Stewardship Council (CSC), these are the standards they are implementing for their habitat restoration project at the Trump National Golf Club located in Bedminster, NJ.
Trump National has been working diligently over the winter months to removal non-native invasive vegetation from the property to prepare for native vegetation seeding and plantings this spring. By establishing these habitat meadows around the course, consisting of native wildflowers and warm-season grasses, as well as planting native trees and shrubs around wetland and other riparian zones on the property, the course’s value to migratory birds and pollinators will be significantly enhanced. "It's pretty exciting to see the variety of migrants already coming through the property", said John Parke, Stewardship Project Director for New Jersey Audubon. "Ring-necked Ducks and Hooded Merganser have already arrived and are using the on-site water features."
Trump staff, with assistance from NJ Audubon and the USFWS, have placed numerous bird nesting boxes on site in anticipation of the spring migrants. Turning a negative into a positive many of the downed trees felled on site from hurricane Sandy, in particular red cedar, were salvaged by Trump staff and utilized for posts for the kestrel nest boxes that have been placed on site.
The American Kestrel is the smallest falcon in North America and it has recently been placed on NJ's Threatened Species list." said Parke. "One of the main reasons for its decline is the lack of habitat and scarcity of nest sites. Being a secondary cavity nester, it does not excavate its own nest cavity, the kestrel requires a hole in a tree, like an abandoned woodpecker hole." added Parke. "However, this little falcon will readily utilize man-made nest boxes. So with the nest boxes in place overlooking the open areas of the course, as well as the grassland restoration areas, I guess you can say that the American Kestrel will now also experience luxury living at a Trump property."
Photos by John Parke and B. Dalton
Chatsworth, Burlington County, NJ – Pine Island Cranberry Co. (PICC), a leader in cranberry production in NJ, has joined NJ Audubon's Corporate Stewardship Council (CSC), which is a unique group of 18 New Jersey companies united behind a common goal of environmental sustainability and responsibility in NJ. By becoming a member of the Council, PICC has the distinction to be the first agricultural production company member in the Council's five year existence. Not only does PICC bring an agricultural perspective to the Council, but its membership also brings with it the largest stewardship project to date in the Council. Specifically, a 14,000-acre project site involving large scale forest stewardship work in the heart of the New Jersey Pinelands. This project is also the first forest stewardship project to be part of the Council membership.
A 122-year-old family owned cranberry business, Pine Island Cranberry has been managing and performing sustainable forestry practices for several years under a State approved Forest Stewardship Plan (FSP). The FSP emphasizes long-term active forest management on a landscape scale, while enhancing a wide range of forest resources, wildlife habitat, and ecosystem services. The plan, which was developed by NJ State Approved Forester Bob Williams of Land Dimensions Engineering in Glassboro NJ, utilizes a variety of forestry prescriptions and techniques, including prescribed burning, to control invasive vegetation and stimulate native plant growth. The forest stewardship work being conducted at PICC promotes forest regeneration, health, and vigor, while also providing critical habitat for various wildlife species and unique plants.
“We are truly excited to welcome Pine Island Cranberry Company into the Corporate Stewardship Council!" said John Parke, Stewardship Project Director for New Jersey Audubon. "The work Pine Island Cranberry Company is doing through forest stewardship is exemplary. We commend Pine Island for being a model business that understands that the management of natural resources makes both economic and ecological sense. Thus, they are providing quality forest and farm products which help support the NJ economy, while protecting the future of New Jersey’s critical habitat and farmland. Meaningful and sustainable conservation is difficult to achieve without the knowledge and experience of people, like Bill Haines of Pine Island and his forester Bob Williams, who live and work on the land.” Parke added.
“Pine Island Cranberry is proud to join the NJ Audubon Corporate Stewardship Council. Our pride in growing high-quality, nutritious cranberries is matched by our love and respect for the land and our people. We are honored to be affiliated with an organization that shares our core values.” said Bill Haines, Jr., owner and CEO of Pine Island Cranberry Company. For more information about Pine Island Cranberry Company please visit http://www.picranberry.com/
South Branch Wildlife Management Area, Somerset/Hunterdon Counties, N.J. – Jersey Central Power & Light (JCP&L) initiated its first habitat restoration project as part of the company’s participation in NJ Audubon's Corporate Stewardship Council (CSC), at the South Branch Wildlife Management Area. Volunteering to remove and recycle nearly a mile of old wire, 18 transformers and 40 utility poles left on site by the former owner, JCP&L provided this key improvement to the critical habitat at this 422-acre site that has been undergoing large scale restoration efforts over the last four years.
Identified as one of the most important in the region for protecting nesting populations of threatened and endangered grassland birds, the South Branch Wildlife Management Area has become a model site for how both wildlife and agriculture can coexist. Working with a local farmer, a unique partnership between the Hunterdon County Department of Parks and Recreation, the New Jersey Division of Fish & Wildlife, and New Jersey Audubon was formed in 2006 with a goal of managing the site for grassland habitat and grassland dependent species. Consequently, portions of this site have since been transformed from scrubby invasive plant habitat to native grasses that provide critical habitat for a number of rare species including Bobolinks, Grasshopper Sparrows, Eastern Meadowlarks, and Savannah Sparrows.
"Grassland birds require large, open treeless areas of grass and sedge meadow. One issue at the South Branch WMA site was that the old utility wires and poles remaining on site were attracting Brown-headed Cowbirds." said John Parke, Stewardship Project Director for New Jersey Audubon. "Cowbirds were a big concern in that they are nest parasites, laying eggs in other birds’ nests for the hosts to raise as their own. The wires and poles at the South Branch WMA were used by cowbirds as vantage points to observe the activity of host birds and identify locations of the nests of these rare grassland species. Grassland birds typically require large contiguous areas of grassland with few trees or perch sites for species such as cowbirds and hawks. One of the keys to discouraging cowbird parasitism or controlling populations of Brown-headed Cowbirds, is to remove perch sites, especially within or surrounding the grassland habitat. This is exactly what JCP&L has done and it has improved the habitat value at the South Branch WMA immensely! Over the next several breeding seasons we expect to see many more grassland birds successfully raise young. New Jersey Audubon and the other partners involved in the project cannot thank JCP&L enough for this work and their commitment to help steward this habitat." added Parke.
A few utility poles were strategically left standing to allow for nest boxes to be attached to them. JCP&L assisted with the installation of the nest boxes specific for other grassland dependent birds that are also state listed species, specifically American Kestrel and Barn Owl. Both species are cavity nesters and require large expanses of open grassland to forage, which South Branch WMA provides.
“The South Branch Wildlife Management Area provides a much needed grassland habitat and is a model for how partnerships can help protect the environment,” said JCP&L President, Don Lynch. “Removing the poles, wires and transformers will help ensure that the birds have a natural habitat. We are proud to support the New Jersey Audubon Society’s Corporate Stewardship Council and its partners in their efforts in restoring the site and look forward to partnering in other projects.”
You read on the Stewardship Blog, about looking at nature differently - now visit our sanctuaries and tell us what you see. Post your photos to our Flickr page. Report your bird observations in NJ eBird too. Winter snows and upcoming spring growth offer excellent opportunities to see a wide variety of wildlife at New Jersey Audubon's wildlife sanctuaries. Visitors such as yourself are critical to helping us record the various species found on site, from grey squirrels to bobcats, to mink such as the one here, found at our Wattles Stewardship Center on Januray 12, 2013. Visit our sanctuaries page, pick a spot and take a hike. This time of year animals can not only be identified by visual encounters, but by their tracks. Here are some links to get you started. Click on each below and be routed to the site.
NJ Audubon Sanctuaries
Animal Track Identification
Photo by John Parke
I was recently asked by a colleague if I had any photos of birds that appear around feeders this time of year. She was working on a article about feeding the birds in winter. As I surveyed through my photos I came upon a photo I had taken just the previous week of a bobcat that had just killed a cardinal. "Wow!", I thought to myself, remembering the made for TV moment I had witnessed when I took that photo... and then I thought about something. People forget just how important birds are to the food chain. We always talk about feeding the birds, but remember birds are food too and play an enormous role in the survival of other species.
Setting the Stage - Predator and Prey
An arctic like wind swept across the snow covered fields that January day while hunting with a buddy off Old Mine Road in the Delaware Water Gap. The little thermometer dangling from my field jacket said 17°F, but it felt more like 40 below. Suddenly out of nowhere it appeared, a bobcat slowly sneaking through the little bluestem and cedar succession field. This was the first animal we had encountered all morning -there was nothing moving or flying in this bone-chilling cold. Then from about 20-yards away it saw us and froze in its tracks. It looked at us, just for a second, and then got down low and continued to stalk using the tan colored bluestem grass for cover. When it neared the thorny hedgerow it perked up its ears and pounced fast and hard disappearing behind a tuft of snow covered grass. When it looked up from the grass, flashes of red appeared flapping from its mouth! A male cardinal! The cat watched us there for a full minute, holding the cardinal tightly in its mouth, with almost an expression of relief and satisfaction. I quickly snapped off a few photos and then it turned and as stealthy as it came in, the predator slid off into the underbrush without a sound with its now lifeless prey.
To Be or to Be "Eaten", that is Question
I had previously sent this bobcat photo around to a few friends who I knew would appreciate what I had witnessed in the wild. Predator prey interaction captured by the camera, and a State Endangered bobcat too boot! They all agreed it was very cool to have seen a bobcat, bobcats are a beautiful animal and how lucky I was to be in the right place at the right time. These comments were consistent. But then, they would follow with a comment about the bird and its death. These comments varied in tone and content.
Some felt bad or sad for the bird, or asked why couldn't the bobcat have kill a mouse instead. Some were upset by the bobcat's actions of killing the bird. Some even said how they hated that it was a cardinal that was killed and could it have been some other "less showy bird" to fall to the bobcat. Others cheered the bobcat for finding food in 17 degree weather so it would live another day. While some wondered if it caught the cardinal for food for its young to help the next generation of this species survive through winter. The comments provided very different perspectives on a very natural process - the food chain, the very basis of existence.
Insight From a Friend
One of my friends who responded to my bobcat/cardinal photo email sent me the following:
"Up yonder I write a monthly poetry column featuring a seasonal poem by a Vermont writer ...check out: 'Red Removed' http://thenewsfrompoems.com/spring/ ...seeing your picture captures the exhilaration /triumph of the capture, not so much the tragedy of the pretty bird."
"That was a interesting response, very insightful," I thought. So I clicked the link and read the poem - "Red Removed'
Beautiful. Very apropos for what I witnessed that frozen day with the bobcat and the cardinal in the wilds of Warren County, NJ.
"That's the wonder of nature", I thought to myself after reflecting on the poem. "Life and death from different perspectives."
But it's those life and death moments in nature that define species roles in the existence of others. It also magnifies the importance of having quality habitat to provide those critical components to support the existence of a variety of species, ensuring the balance of life remains. A Greek proverb states, "Even a wolf will not stay -Where sounds no bleat to offer of prey."
I am proud to be a part of NJ Audubon because we are a conservation organization focusing our work to conserve the environment and restore critical habitat for the benefits of all NJ's wildlife. How we care for our landscape by stewarding our natural world and simultaneously seeking to engage more people in witnessing the wonders of nature is key to a meaningful, healthy, and enjoyable existence for all species.
Collaboration reduced to its simplest definition means "to work together." This simple concept is powerful tool to effect change. By working within collaborative groups, projects are guided by trust and reciprocity, project actions tend to be more highly adaptive and naturally creative. By working with collaborators towards a common goal, ideas are cross-pollinated and information is gathered collectively and more opportunities for innovation and strong strategies for change are achieved. In the case of three winners of the 2012 Governor's Environmental Excellence Awards, collaboration is the key to conservation.
On January 28, 2013, the 2012 Governor's Environmental Excellence Awards were presented at the New Jersey State Museum. New Jersey Audubon staff were present and is proud to have been part of collaborative efforts for three of the eleven projects honored. Specifically, awards given in the following categories: Healthy and Sustainable Businesses, Healthy Ecosystems, and Land Conservation.
Winners of the awards are judged by the NJ Department of Environmental Protection on the basis of documented environmental benefits, innovation and the long term impact of their projects.
Category Healthy and Sustainable Businesses
Winner: Mannington Mills, Salem
NJ Audubon Corporate Stewardship Council member, Mannington Mills, is a recognized leader of sustainable practices. Their efforts include solar energy implementation, emission reductions, recycling initiatives as well as reducing water use by converting nearly 30 acres of lawn and agricultural lands to native grasslands and shrub lands, providing critical habitat areas for several threatened and endangered species. New Jersey Audubon, along with the USFWS and NRCS assisted with the design, installation and monitoring of this important habitat in the Delaware Bayshore.
Category Healthy Ecosystems
Winner: Drew University, Madison
Drew University transformed its campus and adjacent forest preserve in Madison to restore lost ecosystem services, wildlife habitat, and biodiversity. Most significant is the ecological restoration of 18 acres of the Drew Forest Preserve, in synergistic partnership with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)’s Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and New Jersey Audubon. By restoring this forest ecosystem and planting native species across the campus, Drew University’s habitat restoration efforts directly address many of New Jersey’s needs for ecosystem services and for protection of natural resources and open space. More specifically, this work addresses explicitly articulated objectives for New Jersey: preservation and enhancement of critical wildlife habitat, reduction of invasive vegetation, preservation of open space, natural resource protection, watershed management, water quality improvement, flood control, reduction of soil erosion, filtering of air pollutants, maintenance of water quality, and enhanced groundwater recharge.
Category Land Conservation
Winner: City of Linden
The City of Linden was recognized for its ongoing development of the Hawk Rise Sanctuary, a 95-acre preserve that reconnects residents to the Rahway River and the Arthur Kill. The Hawk Rise Sanctuary is a blueprint for turning a former landfill into open space and wildlife habitat while providing multiple public uses. New Jersey Audubon has been instrumental in assisting the City with the sanctuary’s new network of trails, viewing stations, interpretive signs and educational programs that connect people with natural areas and wildlife.
“The habitat enhancements and restorations at these project sites are expected to have far-reaching benefits, not just for wildlife, but for their communities as well.” said John Parke, NJ Audubon Northern Stewardship Project Director. "By bringing in talented and passionate collaborators such as NJ Audubon and USFWS and working towards a common goal, these award winners solidified a symbiotic relationship with communities to foster environmental awareness while enhancing wildlife and natural systems. They should be seen as models for recognizing the benefits of collaboration when considering restoration, protection and stewardship of open space and natural resource protection."
NJ Audubon's mission promotes the stewardship of New Jersey's wildlife and habitat and promotes a conservation ethic among citizens of the state seeking to conserve. That said, NJ Audubon would like to congratulate Mannington Mills, Drew University and the City of Linden and say thank you for having NJ Audubon collaborate and share in your vision of achieving environmental excellence for your projects! Your incredible efforts to restore critical habitat for many species of wildlife in New Jersey are greatly appreciated!
NJ Audubon would also like to extend our congratulations to the rest of the 2012 Environmental Excellence Award winners and commend them for their efforts to make New Jersey a better place for people and wildlife!
New Jersey's landscape is forever changed by the impacts of hurricane Sandy, with the state experiencing some of the worst storm surge flooding seen in modern times. However, while the coastal areas have received most of the press coverage associated with the storm, what many outside New Jersey do not realize was how Sandy's extended period of extremely high wind gusts changed the landscape of New Jersey’s interior forests. Tens of thousands of trees were brought down from one end of the state to the other.
Although storms may significantly change the woods, the woods are not "ruined". Despite the potential economic impacts, there are ecological benefits. While initially looking "messy", storms help create the "old-growth like" habitat characteristics often lacking in most forests (e.g., cavity trees, downed dead logs, diverse tree ages and sizes). Additionally, these "gaps" in the forests also cause an explosion of biodiversity as plants seedlings and saplings receive more light and space to grow, which in turn provide new habitat opportunities for a variety of wildlife.
NJ Audubon also saw an opportunity from the impacts of hurricane Sandy, to utilize some of the downed wood from the storm in the northern part of the state, particularly eastern red cedar, to create artificial snake hibernacula (dens) in the southern NJ Pinelands.
Although the snakes of the NJ Pinelands, such as the State Endangered corn snake and State Threatened pine snake, are certainly capable of excavating their own den, habitat loss has created a need for man-made intervention to assist these species. Dens created at strategic locations within the habitat also help to increase the likelihood of intraspecific interactions and accordingly, help promote gene flow across populations.
With logs from storm damaged eastern red cedar trees, donated by Bob and Harriett Druskin of the McMertry Farm in Somerset County, NJ Audubon was able to salvage this wood to utilize in the construction of these artificial snake dens in the southern Jersey Pinelands. Typically, treated wood such as railroad ties or telephone poles are used in the construction of these dens, however with the use of natural rot resistant red cedar there was no need for chemically treated wood for the project.
The artificial den is a solid underground structure that mimics, but will outlast, the natural root cavities of trees. Although artificial in name, the design promotes the natural excavation behavior of the snakes as they dig out their den. As the different layers of soil are removed they are separated so that when back-filling begins, the appropriate material is returned to the right location, providing the natural underground conditions important to a pine snake den. A solid roof prevents cave-in and methodically placed PVC pipes offer ease of ingress and egress.
Beth Ciuzio of US Fish and Wildlife Service Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and Bob Zappalorti, Executive Director and Founder of Herpetological Associates,Inc. of Jackson, NJ provided assistance to NJA staff in the construction of the pine snake den. The USFWS Partner’s Program donated the machinery used to construct this den. Bob Zappalorti donated not only his time to oversee construction, but also donated supplies to cap it off. The den design is a proven successful model developed by Bob.
Many forestland owners in the mid-Atlantic incurred significant tree loss during Hurricane Sandy. One of New Jersey Audubon’s (NJA) Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified land owners, Newark Watershed, was no exception.
In the 1930’s, under President Roosevelt, the Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) was formed to offer employment opportunities to young men between ages 18 and 25 during the Great Depression. Among other things, the CCC worked on forestry projects throughout New Jersey with one of the more common activities being the reforestation of abandoned farmland and other cleared areas. Typically, CCC reforestation efforts consisted of planting various conifer species in relatively small plantations. In Northern New Jersey, red pine, Norway spruce and Japanese larch were often used in plantations even though they were not necessarily native to the region. Now, some 75 years later, the unmanaged plantations have reached an over-stocked stage of development where the overall growth has slowed considerably, and the less dominant trees have become suppressed. Overstocked plantations typically have tall, spindly stems with small live crowns ratios. Additionally, they usually have minimal root system development compared to those growing under less crowded conditions. These structural factors can cause a predisposition to wind throw during storm events.
As a FSC certified forestland owner, the watershed has committed to managing the CCC’s exotic plantations in a way that will allow for a smooth transition back to a natural forest with a native species composition. NJA has partnered with Newark Watershed to assist with mitigating the mortality within these plantations. The objective for management following the hurricane begins with a salvage harvest of the wind thrown trees in an effort to ensure that desirable native trees become established in the storm affected areas. Removing wind thrown trees will afford access to the site in order to manipulate future populations of non-native trees and shrubs that may become established.
The area of the Watershed seemingly hit hardest by the storm is located near Oak Ridge. Here, plantation salvage harvests will be conducted in the most easily accessible areas first. Typically, the storm affected areas requiring treatment range from a few acres up to ten acres in size. Each treatment area will be assessed individually with a restoration prescription being submitted to the NJ Forest Service and respective townships prior to soliciting contractors to complete the work. In all cases, appropriate healthy trees will be retained, as well as snags and course woody debris that will serve as prime habitat for woodpeckers, salamanders, beetles and many other species that thrive after a natural disturbance occurs. Following the treatments natural regeneration response will be closely monitored along with deer browse pressure. Invasive species will be treated as required and non-native regeneration will be inhibited with a method deemed appropriate to the species in question. If necessary, a native mixture of conifers may be planted to ensure this ecologically valuable softwood component is retained in the watershed.
Prior to Hurricane Sandy there was very little age class diversity and early successional upland habitat within Newark Watershed’s forests. This disturbance, if managed correctly, will be appreciated and used by many wildlife species that require young forests to live in. NJA is committed to enhancing the ecological integrity of the FSC certified forestlands that are listed under the Group Certificate. While the forestry team has a lot of work ahead, they envision this disturbance not as a problem but instead an opportunity to improve the overall health of the watershed’s coniferous stands and to improve their habitat suitability for those species that call them home. Gap disturbances, whether natural or man-made, enable regeneration to establish, provide critical early successional habitat and most of all ensure that the forests we value so deeply will be conserved for generations to come.
By: Jeremy Caggiano
New Jersey Audubon Stewardship Project Coordinator / Forester
NJ Audubon Corporate Stewardship Council (CSC) member New Jersey American Water was recently awarded the New Jersey Business & Industry Association's (NJBIA) Environmental Quality Award for its habitat restoration project in conjunction with the Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program, for its property in the Pottersville section of Tewksbury, Hunterdon County.
With the aid of New Jersey Audubon and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) the project was focused on large scale invasive vegetation removal and improving native understory plant communities in a riparian area along the Lamington River (a Category One Waterway - designated as such for its ecological importance). Ultimately this habitat improvement will benefit both resident and migratory birds and other wildlife by providing critical foraging and breeding areas.
"It always gives us great pleasure to recognize the outstanding achievements of our member companies." said NJBIA President Phillip Kirschner. "Each one of our Awards for Excellence winners has a wonderful story that deserves to be told."
A restored ecosystem provides beneficial natural services well beyond property boundaries. Because restoration generally contributes to public wellbeing, NJ Audubon congratulates NJ American Water for receiving this award and for their commitment to restoring NJ's habitat.
In September Databasing Assistant, Hadel Go, of the American Museum of Natural History - Division of Invertebrate Zoology, visited several NJ Audubon sanctuaries and the nyjer thistle and S.A.V.E.™ sunflower fields of the Liberty Farm of Sandyston, NJ and the Roseline’s Farm & Bakery in Augusta, NJ to survey for bee species.
According to Ms. Go, "The goal of this survey is to comb through NJ and collect bees to supplement the museum and university collections, which comprise the bulk of our data, for our Bees of NJ Checklist. Some specimens from these collections are over a hundred years old; we want to make sure to include all the species that exist in the state today. There are nonnative species creeping in and areas that have not been sampled including several NJ Audubon sites." Currently there is no official reference list for the bees of New Jersey.
Although all bee species are being identified during the survey, it is the wild bees that are of special interest. Wild bees refers to a very large and diverse group that excludes honeybees. There are around 20,000 species of bees in the world and North America is home to some 3,500 species. "The Bees of NJ Checklist so far includes over 300 species," said Ms. Go.
Ms. Go's survey has collected a wide variety of bees, including two NJ state records and some that are not common for this region. "It was exciting to learn that I had collected bees never found in NJ before.” said Ms. Go. “Dr. John S. Ascher, Melittologist and AMNH research scientist, identifies all the bees I collect. He has accumulated most of the data we have and I am assisting him in finalizing this checklist. Dr. Jerry Rozen, Curator of the AMNH bee collection who resides in Bergen County, has also tremendously contributed to our data with over 60 years of collecting in NJ."
"All elements of an ecosystem are important to the function of that ecosystem. If one element of the system is removed, the system makes adjustments. However you may not know what the effect of that adjustment is until after it has happened. That's why finding out exactly what native bee species are present in NJ is so important to the work NJ Audubon is doing, especially with the type of habitat restoration we work on in the agricultural communities of the state," said John Parke, Stewardship Project Director of NJA. "Native bees and other pollinators are essential building blocks of our food system, as well as keeping ecological balance in the landscape. NJ Audubon applauds native bee research that provides missing information on these beneficial insects."
According to the USDA's Farm Management for Native Bees, “Over 100 crop species in North America require insect pollination to be productive. Populations of managed non-native honey bees have declined in recent years. While honey bees are still very important pollinators, encouraging populations of native bees can provide 'pollination insurance' during times when honey bees are not available or are experiencing population decline. At the same time, native bees can increase yields for many crops."
Studies in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware indicate, "Native bees will often visits flowers in wet or cold conditions, when honey bees remain in the hive; many native bees forage earlier or later in the day than non-native honey bees, and native bees pollinate several fruit crops, such as apples, cherries, blueberries, cranberries and tomatoes, far more effectively than non-native honey bees on a bee-per-bee basis."
"Anyone can contribute to the Bees of New Jersey survey data by photographing bees (no honeybees please) and posting pictures on www.bugguide.net or sending them to Ms. Go at firstname.lastname@example.org; clear close-up images that can be identified to species will be useful to the study. If you have a Flickr account, you can join the study's Bees of NJ group and add your photos. You can also contact Ms. Go if interested in collecting from your backyard or school." Said Ms. Go, "It's essential to know what bees we have. With that baseline information, we can begin monitoring populations, locate and protect important nesting sites, provide food plants, and most importantly appreciate these amazing and beautiful creatures."